Student-centric advice and objective recommendations
Which Parent Should I Use on the FAFSA?
Student’s often have varying situations when it comes to parents. For example, if your divorced parents live separately, you may wonder “which parent should I use when I fill out the FAFSA?” The Department of Education has specific requirements for a variety of circumstances. Continue reading to learn more about how to fill out the parent information on the FAFSA!
When do you need your parents’ information?
Students who fit the definition of dependent should include their parents’ information when filling out the FAFSA. According to the Department of Education, a dependent student would NOT fit ANY of the criteria of an independent student. The independent student criteria are:
- At least 24 years old
- A graduate or professional student
- A veteran
- A member of the armed forces
- An orphan
- A ward of the court
- Someone with legal dependents other than a spouse
- An emancipated minor
- Someone who is homeless or at risk of becoming homeless
A student who fits any of these criteria may be an independent student and be exempt from providing parent information on their FAFSA.
Who is considered a parent?
For FAFSA purposes, the parents listed must be your legal parent or stepparent, biologically or by adoption. The following are NOT your parent unless they have legally adopted you:
- Widowed stepparent
- Foster parents
- Aunts or uncles
Students must report information about their legal parents if they live with someone other than them.
For married parents, answer the FAFSA questions about both of them.
Note that the questions about each parent are gender neutral on the FAFSA. The gender of your parents and the order you list them does not matter.
Divorced or separated parents
The way a student reports their divorced or separated parents’ information depends on whether the parents live together and/or the parent with whom the student lives.
The Department of Education considers parents separated if they are legally separated by the state or if they are legally married but live separate lives as though they were not married.
Parents who live together
For unmarried parents who live together, report information for both parents on the FAFSA.
Divorced parents that live together should list their marital status as “unmarried and both legal parents living together.” Separated parents that live together should list their marital status as “married or remarried,” NOT “divorced or separated.”
Parents who live separately
Students with divorced or separated parents that do not live together should provide information on the one parent they have lived with more over the past 12 months. If there is not a parent you lived with more, report information for the parent who provided you with more financial support over the past year.
Include information about the stepparent who is married to the parent whose information is reported on the FAFSA. The exception to this is the parents’ education level. For this question, list the education level of your birth or adoptive parents.
Providing information about your stepparent will give a fuller picture of your family’s financial situation.
The FAFSA does not ask about your parents’ citizenship status, and their status does not affect the student’s eligibility for financial aid. However, there are a few pieces of advice to note for students with undocumented parents:
- If your parent doesn’t have a Social Security number, enter all 0s.
- Parents without a Social Security number will not be able to make an FSA ID to electronically sign the FAFSA. Instead, print the page, have the parent sign it, and mail it to the address indicated.
- If your parents live and file taxes in a foreign country and don’t file U.S. taxes, there will be a chance to indicate that they have filed their taxes.
Parents who are unwilling to provide FAFSA information
Some students’ parents are unwilling to assist them with the FAFSA. If this is the case, and you don’t have a special circumstance, you can still fill out the form. When asked to provide your parents’ information on the FAFSA, select “I am unable to provide information about my parent(s).” The FAFSA will provide you with a list of special circumstances. Select the option that indicates you don’t have a special circumstance, but still can’t provide the information.
The colleges you list receive the FAFSA, but you will not receive an Expected Family Contribution (EFC). The school uses this number to determine your aid eligibility. You should contact your school’s financial aid office to discuss the possibility of receiving federal aid. The school may ask for written statements detailing your parents’ unwillingness to provide support.
These are the special circumstances that may allow a student to submit their FAFSA without parent information despite being a dependent:
- Student has left home due to an abusive environment
- Incarcerated parents
- Student does not know where their parents are and is unable to contact them (and has not been adopted)
- Student is older than 21 but not yet 24, is unaccompanied and is homeless or self-supporting and at risk of becoming homeless.
Also see: Am I a dependent or independent student?
Fill out parent information as best you can
It’s important to complete the parent information on the FAFSA as fully and accurately as you can. This information will be used to calculate your Expected Family Contribution (EFC). Without an EFC, students are eligible ONLY for unsubsidized federal loans. The decision to provide aid without an EFC is up to your school and can’t be overturned by the Department of Education. Provide the appropriate parent information to be eligible for all types of federal financial aid!